When held in your hands, a sheet of buckypaper seems unimpressive, with its thin and flimsy texture more closely resembling a piece of carbon paper than a breakthrough material. But don't be fooled. This seemingly modest sheet of paper -- made from tube-shaped carbon molecules 50,000 times thinner than a human hair -- when stacked, nets a material that's 500 times stronger than steel, yet 10 times lighter.
Buckypaper's strength is only equaled by its unique properties. Unlike conventional composite materials, it conducts electricity similar to copper or silicon, yet disperses heat like steel or brass. As a material, buckypaper holds the promise of changing the way airplanes, automobiles and electronics are made.
Such breakthroughs hold the capacity to touch every aspect of our lives. Manufacturing has undergone startling changes over the last 20 years, including radical advances in materials, controls, communications, electronics and software. These developments have reduced the incidence of human error, allowed for the accumulation and study of performance data, created the possibility for instant contact with customers, and established flexibility in operations in ways that only a few visionaries might have imagined.
Today, innovation is being driven by a world suddenly grown smaller, where the ability to access and to influence technology is available to a wider range of individuals, spread across a growing number of industrializing nations. According to Cliff Waldman, an economist with the Manufacturers Alliance/MAPI who co-authored a paper on innovation in the manufacturing sector, globalization is the single biggest driver of innovation today.
Rockwell Automation developed two self-powered wireless sensor nodes that were used on the BP tanker Loch Rannoch.
Making Devices Smarter
Technology isn't just reaching a wider audience of users, it's also getting smarter -- especially on the factory floor. According to Sujeet Chand, senior vice president for advanced technology and chief technology officer for Rockwell Automation, a smarter device implies a technology that holds a capacity for processing and communications. With processing capability, he says, intelligence can be embedded.
Sensing technologies are evolving at a rapid rate, allowing for the possibility of sensing at the device level. Today, for example, factories use motor protection devices such as circuit breakers, which sit on the power line monitoring a spike in current or power source. But, soon, with a little more intelligence in sensing, a device could sense the power consumption and power quality, monitoring and recording any changes in its status -- becoming not only a tool for control, but also providing feedback.
"You may have in the future nano-sensors that, for example, you would embed in the grease inside an electric motor," says Chand. "The nano-sensor would sense the properties, such as metal particles, and indicate if there may be potential for breakdown in the insulation."
New research at the Georgia Institute of Technology could soon make predicting the degradation and remaining useful life of mechanical and electronic equipment easier and more accurate.
Nagi Gebraeel, an assistant professor at Georgia Tech's H. Milton Stewart School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, has developed models that use data from real-time sensor measurements to calculate and continuously revise the amount of useful life remaining for different engineering systems based on their current condition and health status. These predictions then are integrated with maintenance management and spare-parts supply chain policies as part of an autonomous "sense-and-respond" logistics network.
Threading of the Lines
Whether the problem is a fire, power outage or equipment breakdown, one of the hardest systems to refine in any large company is how to direct vital information to the correct individual as quickly as possible.
Georgia Tech assistant professor Nagi Gebraeel, Alaa Elwany and Aly Megahed (left-right), all of Georgia Tech's School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, monitor the vibration and acoustic emissions signals from equipment to predict remaining useful life.
If, for example, there were an alarm on a factory floor and no one was in the factory, a UC system would figure out to whom it should send the alarm notification, being able to determine his or her availability instantly, and using whatever communications channel the staffer picks. The system could send a text message to that individual or embed a video of the machine just before it failed.
Automaker BMW uses UC systems extensively in project development, linking members of its research laboratories, design centers and manufacturing sites. UC is also being applied to its supply chains, enabling smoother operations, while increasing visibility and response.
"This is an extremely exciting technology in communications," says Rockwell Automation's Chand. "What it does is enable us to automate how we transmit information."
Justifying the Leap
When Procter & Gamble considers implementing new technologies into manufacturing processes, there had better be a convincing reason for it.
According to Jon McLaughlin, who serves as section head for upstream technology development at Procter & Gamble, the focus is largely on processing at higher speeds, with fewer errors -- and finding ways to do it as cost-effectively as possible.
To produce products such as diapers, dish soap and eyeliner faster, with greater accuracy, McLaughlin closely watches the development of higher-torque and lower-weight actuators, with tighter performance control.
Actuators, which are used frequently throughout industrial facilities, require large footprints and connections to heavy hydraulic and pneumatic lines. But that may be about to change, as electric motors have begun to close the gap on hydraulic actuators, opening new possibilities for the manufacturing sector.
Small thin-layer sensors, such as this one from Endress+Hauser, have grown smaller in size, yet are faster and more tolerant of vibration.
Forecast: Partly Cloudy
While the Internet and network-connected devices are anything but novel, the ability to snatch data anywhere off the Web -- so-called cloud computing -- has started to catch on with consumers and businesses in a more meaningful way. Does it hold a future in industrial automation? That depends on who you ask.
Cloud computing, in short, enables a company to tap into raw computing power, storage, software applications and data from massive data centers over the Internet. Customers pay only for the computing resources they need, when they need them. Using the cloud allows businesses to avoid building their own data centers and buying servers and disks.
"You suddenly have companies that are offering software services in manufacturing," says Ian Finley, an analyst for AMR Research. "Companies like Plex Systems offer a set of different tools that might focus on inventory and financials, ones for supply chain management or ones for manufacturing that delve into quality management, production scheduling and shop-floor control."
The problem is time or, more specifically, how reliable cloud computing software can be to process data as it happens. In industrial automation, where every piece of data needs to be read and processed in real-time, a millisecond's delay might miss, say, a sensor sending signals of a surge in power.
"In the factory or plant, you may use software as a service and it can help you come up with the best schedule for running your facility tomorrow," says Rockwell Automation's Chand. "But, I don't see how you'd use cloud computing for real-time operations in the factory. I don't have a guarantee on the availability and performance of that software application."
Robot technology continues to advance in speed and adaptability. Adept Technology recently launched the latest version of its Quattro line of high-speed robots, which have broken the 300-cycles-per-minute barrier.
Wires seem to be disappearing at an alarming rate these days. Phones have shed their wires and turned into multi-function devices, as tools for communications have grown more sophisticated. Computers have turned into laptops that hook online via WiFi. Security systems for homes and facilities have unplugged. Now, there is the promise of wireless energy transfer before our eyes.
All of these developments signify the rising demand for wireless technology -- especially in manufacturing today. But wireless capabilities, like so many other emerging technologies, are new tools, nothing more.
"We've got so many technologies that are available and are evolving and improving," says Mike Yost, global markets development leader for GE Fanuc Intelligent Platforms' operations management software business. "But, any technology is only as important as the problem it's solving. And, I don't want to enhance anything until I've determined what the problem is."
Technology has a knack for sometimes confusing its own users. Half the electronic devices that get returned to retail stores in the first week are returned because users can't figure them out. The same holds true in more complex technologies, says Kevin Craig, professor of mechanical engineering at Marquette University.
"Technology has to be desirable, but from a business aspect, it has to be sustainable and maintainable," says Craig. "But most of all, it has to be usable."