Almost three years into a devastating economic recession, American workers are deeply pessimistic about prospects for economic recovery, according to a report from Rutgers University. The majority believes that the nation's economy has undergone a fundamental and lasting change, a new nationwide survey finds.
As Labor Day 2010 approaches, the survey found that the recessions impact is far more widespread than just those who are unemployed. Nearly three in four (73%) Americans have been directly affected by a recession that is unprecedented in its length and severity. During the recession:
- 14% lost a full- or part-time job
- 12% saw an immediate family member lose a job
- 30% had a member of their extended family lose a job
- 17% knew a close friend who lost a job
The report, entitled "American Workers Assess an Economic Disaster", was prepared by professors Carl Van Horn and Cliff Zukin of the John J. Heldrich Center for Workforce Development, a research and policy center at Rutgers University.
Nearly two in three of those surveyed expect the United States to still be in a recession next year; another 18% fear a depression is coming. According to Professor Van Horn, the studys co-author: "Prolonged and high levels of unemployment deeply affected most American families, causing the employed and unemployed alike to make significant financial sacrifices. After suffering through the worst economic disaster most have ever experienced, American workers have diminished expectations about Americas economic future and do not have much faith that the nation's political leaders can move the country forward."
Some of the other key findings of the national survey are:
- More than half (56%) think the U.S. economy has undergone a fundamental and lasting change as opposed to a temporary downturn (43%).
- Fully 41% anticipate that the United States will be experiencing similar economic conditions a year from now while another quarter (27%) actually believes the economy will get worse before it gets better.
- Nearly 9 in 10 Americans (86%) who are still working express at least some concern about their job security; half of them report being very concerned
The Causes of Unemployment
American workers spread the blame around for high levels of unemployment and personal economic strife during the Great Recession, but they cite three leading causes above others: global competition, illegal immigrants and Wall Street bankers.
- Nearly three in four respondents (74%) attribute high levels of joblessness to competition and cheap labor from other countries.
- A near majority of those surveyed (47%) believe illegal immigrants have taken jobs away from Americans and contributed to high unemployment.
- Over 4 in 10 respondents (45%) attribute high unemployment to the actions of Wall Street bankers.
About a third of American workers also believe that the policies of former President George W. Bush (31%) and President Barack Obama (33%) contributed to record unemployment.
Employed and unemployed Americans agree that the vast majority of unemployed workers are not in that predicament due to their own behavior. Only one-quarter of those working (26%) and one in six of the unemployed (17%) say that the high jobless rate is due to the fact that some people do not want to work.
"With so many families being directly affected, we find Americans have great sympathy and empathy for the plight of the unemployed. Rather than being viewed as slackers, the unemployed are seen as wanting to work and trying hard to get jobs. Blaming the unemployed for their condition is akin to blaming the victim," said study co-author Professor Cliff Zukin.
Assessing Policies and Political Leaders
Employed and unemployed workers have different views about who is responsible for helping the unemployed. When asked who bore the primary responsibility for helping those without work, 42% of Americans say workers themselves should be responsible, while 32% say the government and 26% say employers. In contrast, more than half (51%) of the unemployed say government should have primary responsibility for helping the unemployed and just 22% say that workers should have the primary responsibility.
There is no consensus among American workers about potential policy remedies for the unemployed and the economy:
- By a margin of 70% to 30%, more disagree than agree that a new economic stimulus package is needed, even if it adds to the national debt.
- Half believe the government should cut taxes for businesses in order to help create jobs, even if it causes the national debt to increase.
- 54% would be willing to see the debt go up in order to fund programs to directly create jobs; 77% of unemployed workers support job creation programs
The survey also found that Americans are very skeptical about Washingtons ability to manage the economy. When asked who they trusted to handle the economy, just 23% chose President Obama and 19% said the Republicans in Congress. Forty-five percent say they trust neither. President Obama gets low marks for dealing with the recession. Just 19% of Americans believe Obamas policies have reduced the length of the recession. Twice as many (39%) believe his policies have actually lengthened the recession, with the remaining 41% saying that the administrations policies have neither helped nor hurt.
The Financial and Emotional Impacts of the Recession
About three in four unemployed Americans reported that the economic downturn had a major impact on them and their families; more than half (56%) describe their family finances as flat out poor. Employed Americans have not been spared: more than one-third of those working (37%) say the recession had a major impact on them; more than half (51%) rate their personal financial situation as only fair or poor.
Facing mounting financial problems, millions of Americans are borrowing money, if they can, and making significant lifestyle changes. Among the more important findings:
- Three in four Americans and 86% of unemployed workers cut back on spending.
- Nearly two-thirds of unemployed workers (63%) and 4 in 10 (41%) of Americans spent down savings accounts set aside for retirement.
- 60% of unemployed workers and 25% of employed Americans borrowed money from family or friends.
Unemployed Americans also experienced emotional stress. Nearly one in five (18%) of the unemployed sought professional help in the past year for a stress-related disorder or depression, and nearly one in ten declared personal bankruptcy. Among working Americans, 8% sought mental health counseling due to the economy and 3% declared bankruptcy.