New anti-dumping investigations were on the upswing in the second half of 2008, according to data released by the World Trade Organization. Indeed, 15 WTO members reported initiating a total of 120 new investigations during the second half of the year, up 17% compared with same period of 2007 when 14 members initiated 103 new investigations. On a yearly basis, the number of new investigations initiated jumped to 208 in 2008 from 163 in the previous year. Thats the highest number of new starts since 2004, when 214 new investigations were initiated. India initiated the highest number of new investigations during the second half of the year, with 42, followed by Brazil, reporting 16; China, with 11; Turkey, reporting 10; and Argentina and the European Communities each reporting nine. China led, however, as the most frequent subject of new investigations during the second half of 2008. Thirty-four initiatives were directed at its exports. While China led as the most frequent target during the second half of the year, its second-half total was down 17% compared with the same period in the previous year. The European Communities, including its individual member states, was the second most frequent target with 14, followed by Chinese Taipei, Thailand and the United States with six each. During the second half of 2008 base metals were the most frequently cited product sector identified in new investigations. Forty-three of the new investigations initiated concerned base metals. Chemicals were featured next most prominently, with 22 initiations. Concerning new final anti-dumping measures applied during the second half of 2008, a total of 11 members applied 81 new final measures, 45% more than were applied by 14 members during the same period in 2007. The WTO reported that the final measures were the result of investigations initiated primarily in 2007. The United States reported the greatest number of new applications of final anti-dumping measures during the second half of 2008, with 21 new measures. That was up sharply from the two new measures it reported for the second half of 2007.